(1) The resistance genes that she and her colleagues are studying can be inserted into nonresistant rice plants to trigger their defenses.(2) This suggests that UV-resistant species might take advantage of an increased UV-B permeation, whereas nonresistant species could be eliminated.(3) It is important to recognize that resistance also affects the treatment of individuals with nonresistant organisms.(4) The suppression of immune responses is costly, in particular for nonresistant individuals with high levels of somatic infections.(5) However, these resistance-conferring alleles are often accompanied by a reduction in fitness relative to the nonresistant wild type that is exposed in the absence of the selective agent.(6) Similarly, fruit flies selected to resist the attacks of parasites are less competitive foragers than their nonresistant counter-parts.(7) If the farmer chooses a nonresistant variety and the spring emergence of adult sawflies is large, there is only a 1-to 2-week period in which to spray insecticides.