(1) Heavy clay subsoil or sandy soil with low fertility must be improved if roses are to be grown successfully in them.(2) When digging out the bed, discard any heavy, tight subsoil and save the topsoil.(3) Soil and subsoil will be stocked for subsequent respreading.(4) Wetland creation attempts are often initiated by the removal of upland surface soil materials exposing mineral subsoil strata.(5) These soils are moderately deep to deep, well-drained loam or silt loam surface soils with loam or silty clay loam subsoils , formed primarily in sandstone residuum.(6) Studies in the past showed that subsoiling clay soil in the spring does not improve cotton harvests.