(1) For example, a vowel phoneme cannot exist without a pitch, but pitch may exist as a dimension without any linguistic properties.(2) At least since Pike's seminal work on the phonemics of tone languages, designers of orthographies have grappled with this problem.(3) They can distinguish between any two sounds which represent distinct phonemes in any of the world's languages.(4) The comments section has some interesting thoughts - including people who moot changing English spelling to reflect the phonetics or phonemics .(5) The English language is an alphabetic system, meaning that our written symbols correspond to the separate sounds, or phonemes , in spoken language.(6) Time is what ultimately binds individual letters into words, without which there would be only phonemics .(7) Under the No Child Left Behind Act, state and local proposals for reading instruction must include five components: phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, fluency, and text comprehension.(8) He was able to complete items requiring deletion of syllables and initial phonemes but had difficulty with items requiring deletion of final phonemes or phonemes within a word.(9) These basic abilities are present from birth to a degree, and provide the basis for subsequent language development including phonological and phonemic processing.(10) Until the 1960s, phonology was largely concerned with phonemics , the study of phonemes and phonemic systems, and often considered synonymous with it, especially in the US.(11) Whereas the five classic vowel letters match the five vowel phonemes of a language like Spanish, they are insufficient to distinguish the much larger number of vowel phonemes of English.(12) Research confirms that the manipulation of phonemes (e.g., phonemic awareness) is important in the reading process and allows students a clearer understanding of the alphabetic principle.(13) There's just been legislation either proposed or passed which actually makes phonics, this phonemic teaching you're talking about, compulsory in the United States; isn't that going to solve the problem?(14) Several researchers have concluded that directed instruction in various aspects of phonological processing, and phonemic awareness in particular, may be necessary to prevent early reading failure in some children.