(1) The electric field that exists between cloud top and ionosphere speeds up free electrons bopping about in the neighborhood.(2) This radiation also generates more charged particles in the ionosphere , affecting the reflection and transmission paths of radio frequencies used by satellites and ground-based communications.(3) Typically the satellite clocks, orbits, and ionosphere are modeled separately, and values of parameters describing these corrections are transmitted to users within the area of coverage.(4) The ionosphere is the layer extending from about 80 km to the outer reaches of the atmosphere that includes charged particles.(5) Only signals in the HF frequency band can be used since the ionosphere will not reflect signals at higher frequencies.(6) Its major goals are to characterise the subsurface layers of sediments and possibly detect underground water or ice, to conduct large-scale altimetry mapping and provide data on the planet's ionosphere .(7) The X rays from the flare bombarded the Earth's atmosphere almost instantly, cooking the ionosphere and producing a surge of electric currents.(8) In addition, MARSIS will conduct large-scale altimetry mapping and provide data on the planet's ionosphere , as this electrically charged region of the upper atmosphere reflects radio waves too.(9) Other satellites had communications problems when the excited ionosphere interfered with radio signals sent to and from the ground.(10) Third, Titan is unique among moons in the Solar System for its thick atmosphere, which is complete with an ionosphere - an outer layer of ionized atoms that readily interact with magnetic fields.(11) The flow of electric currents in the ionosphere decreased and offset the strength of Earth's magnetic field (as detected on Earth's surface) by more than 10 percent.(12) A major role of the atmosphere was to filter out the ionising radiation from the sun by ionising the high atmosphere and forming the ionosphere .(13) Later it became apparent what was happening, the signals were going up to the ionosphere and being bounced down to earth but they didn't know anything about that in 1898.(14) The circuit closes when the particles reaches the ionosphere , the outer layer of the earth's atmosphere.(15) Its receiver picked up any reflections from the ionosphere and displayed the results on an oscilloscope.(16) The ionosphere reflects neither FM radio nor broadcast television, itself a part of the radio spectrum.