(1) And once happiness is itself moralized, the credentials of utilitarianism as an overall theory of ethics are compromised.(2) Critics have traditionally attacked utilitarianism for focusing too heavily on happiness, and not enough on other intrinsic goods, such as justice and rights.(3) Mill famously advanced a nuanced utilitarianism , in which the principle of greatest happiness included the caveat that there were qualitatively distinct kinds of happiness.(4) Thus, if the operating principle of utilitarianism is to achieve the greatest happiness for the greatest number, it would be impossible to realize because there is no way to know what constitutes that happiness.(5) Rule utilitarianism holds that a behavioral code or rule is morally right if the consequences of adopting that rule are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone.(6) Mill criticizes Kant's categorical imperative noting that it is essentially the same as utilitarianism since it involves calculating the good or bad consequences of an action to determine the morality of that action.(7) One version of utilitarianism holds that a good way of increasing total happiness is to bring into the world more happy people.(8) He argued that Kantianism and utilitarianism , the two major traditions in western moral philosophy, mistakenly placed the foundation for morality in legalistic notions such as duty and obligation.(9) After all, moral theories such as Kantianism, utilitarianism , and common-sense morality require that an agent give weight to the interests of others.(10) The report identified social justice and economic-rationalist utilitarianism as the major competing educational philosophies or ideologies.
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