8. NARRATION (উক্তি)



বক্তা যাহা বলে তাহাই narration বা উক্তি।

Narration দুই প্রকার :

  1. Direct Narration
  2. Indirect Narration

 

 

Direct Narration: যখন কোন কথা কে পরিবর্তন না করে অবিকল সে ভাষাই ব্যক্ত করা হয় তখন তাকে Direct Narration বলে। ইহাকে inverted commas এর মধ্যে রাখা হয়।

Inverted commas এর ভিতরের অংশে বক্তা তার বক্তব্য উদ্ধৃতি করে আর একে Reported Speech বলে। বক্তার বক্তব্যে বাইরের verb কে reporting verb বলে।

 

Indirect Narration: যখন কোন কথা কে পরিবর্তন করে সে ভাষা ব্যক্ত করা হয় তখন তাকে Indirect Narration বলে।

 

Rules of Changing Narration

 

 

According to Tense:

 

a). Direct speech এর reporting verb present tense, present perfect tense, Future Tense এর হলে Reported Speech এর verb এর ense এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না। কেবল person পরিবর্তন হয়।

Direct: He says, “I am ill.”

Indirect: He says that he is ill.

 

b). Reporting verb টি past tense হলে Reported speech এর verb পরিবর্তিত হয়ে Corresponding past tense হয়।

Note: Direct Speech থেকে Indirect Speech এ করার নিয়ম নিচে দেখানো হল:

 

                Direct                 Indirect
Present Indefinite Tense

 

He said, “I write a letter.”

Past Indefinite Tense

 

He said that he wrote a letter.

Present Continuous Tense

 

He said, “I am reading.”

Past Continuous Tense

 

He said that he was reading.

Present Perfect Tense

 

She said, “I have done my duty.  

Past Perfect Tense

 

She said that she had done her duty.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

 

They said, “We have been working for two hours.”

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

 

They said that they had been working for two hours.

Past Indefinite Tense

 

He said, “I wrote a letter.”

Past Perfect Tense

 

He said that he had written a letter.

Past Continuous Tense

 

Molly said, “I was reading.”

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

 

Molly said that she had been reading.

Future Tense

 

She said to me, “I shall help you.”

Future in the past tense

 

She said that she would help me.

According to Modal Verb:

 

 

Direct Indirect
‘will’

 

Rita said to me, “You will go home tomorrow.”

‘would’

 

Rita said to me that I would go home next day.  

‘shall’

 

Refat said, “I shall do the work.”

‘should’

 

Refat said that she would to the work.

‘Can’

 

He said, “I can finish the work.”

‘Could’

 

He said that he could finish the work.

‘May’

 

Pritam said, “I may go to school”.

‘Might’

 

Pritam said that he might go to school.

 

  • Wish, would, rather, sooner, it is high time এর পর unreal past tense অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।

Direct: He said, “It is time we left the place.

 

Indirect: He said that it was time they left the place.

 

  • Indirect speech এ “had better” 1st person এবং third person এর সহিত অপরিবর্তিত থাকে। কিন্তু second person-এর সহিত had better    অপরিবর্তিত থাকতে পারে অথবা নিম্নলিখিত উপায়ে পরিবর্তিত হতে পারে।  

 

 

Direct: He said to me,”You had better go”.

Indirect: He said to me that i had better go.

 

  • might, ought to, should, would, used to, indirect speech এ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।

 

 

Direct: I said to him,”You might go”.

Indirect: I said to him that he might go.

 

  • If i were you, I should/would… ” দ্বারা উপদেশ বুঝালে indirect করার সময় subject+advise+object+to+reported speech এর verb বসে।

 

 

Direct: I said to him,” If i were you, i should wait”.

Indirect: I advised him to want.

 

According to Person:  

 

  • Reported speech-এর অন্তরগত First Person সর্বদা Reporting verb- এর Subject- এর person অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হয়।

 

 

Direct: He said to me,” I had done my duty”.

Indirect: He said to me that he had done his duty.

 

  • Reported Speech -এর অন্তরগত Second person সর্বদা Reporting verb -এর object- এর  person অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হয়।

 

 

Direct: He said to me, “you have done your duty”.

Indirect: He said to me that I have done my duty.

 

  •  Reported Speech -এর অন্তরগত Third Person এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।

 

 

Direct: I said to you, “ He has done his duty”.

Indirect: I said to you that he had done his duty.

 

Exceptional:

  1. We দ্বারা মানবজাতি বুঝালে first person হওয়া সত্তে ও indirect speech এ তার পরিবর্তন হয় না।

Direct: The teacher said, “ We are mortal,”

 

Indirect: The teacher said that we are mortal.

 

  1. b) We যদি বক্তা(speaker) ও যাকে উদ্দেশ্য করে (person spoken to) উভয়কে বুঝায় তবে Indirect Speech -এ তার কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।

 

 

Direct: He said to me, “We should do our duty.”

Indirect: He said to me that we should do our duty.

 

Some Extra Tips:

  1. must সাধারনতঃ “had to” তে রুপান্তরিত হয়।

Direct: Nafisa said, “ I must write a letter”.

 

Indirect: Nafisa said that she had to write a letter.

 

  1. b) First person must এ must কোন ভবিষ্যৎ কাজের দ্বারা ব্যাধবাধকতা বুঝাতে Indirect speech-এ would have to তে রুপান্তিত হয়।

Direct: He said, “We must leave the house if the rent is increased.”

 

Indirect: He said that they would have to leave the house if the rent was increased.

 

  1. c) কিন্তু চিরকালিন বাধবাধকতা বুঝালে must-এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।

Direct: Father said to his son, “ You must obey your teachers”.

 

Indirect: Father said to his son that he must obey his teachers.

 

  1. d) Reported speech কোন Universal truth(চিরন্তন সত্য) or habitual fact(অভ্যাসগত কর্ম) প্রকাশ করলে verb-এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।

Direct: He said, “The earth moves round the sun.”

 

Indirect: He said that the earth moves round the sun.

 

  1. e) Reporting verb হিসেবে “say” বা “tell”-এর ব্যবহার।

Reported verb হিসেবে “say” Direct এবং Indirect উভয় Speech-এই ব্যবহৃত হয়। তবে indirect speech এ say ব্যবহার না করাই ভাল। Reporting verb হিসেবে tell সাধারনত direct narration এ ব্যবহৃত হয় না। Tell এর পর অবশ্যই একটি indirect (ব্যক্তিবাচক) object বসাতে হবে। say এর পর যদি object বসাতে হয় তবে object এর পূর্বে to বসে। tell এর পর to বসে না।

 

Direct: Roky said to Jak, “ I like to read novels.”

Indirect: Roky told Jak that he liked to read novels.

 

  1. f) নৈকট্য সূচক শব্দগুলো Indirect speech এ পরিবর্তিত হয়ে দূরত্ব সূচক শব্দে পরিনত হয়। যেমনঃ

 

Direct Indirect Direct Indirect
That That Today That day
These Those Tomorrow The next day
Here There Yesterday The previous day
Ago before Last month The previous month
Come go To night That night
Thus so Last night The previous night
Hither Thither Next week The following week
Here There Now Then
  1. g) Direct Speech এ “Thank you” থাকলে তাকে Indirect করার নিয়মঃ

Structure: sub + thank/thanked + reporting verb এর obj

 

 

Direct: He said to me, “Thank you”

Indirect: He thanked me.

 

  1. h) “Good bye” যুক্ত Direct speech কে Indirect করার নিয়মঃ

Structure: Sub + bid/bade + obj + goodbye

 

Direct: He said, “Good bye my friends”.

Indirect: He bade his friend’s good bye.

  1. i) Direct Speechএ Good morning/Good evening/Good night থাকলে indirect করার নিয়মঃ

Structure: sub+ wish/wised + obj + good morning/evening/night

 

Direct: I said to him, “Good morning.”

Indirect: I wished him good morning.

  1. j) Reporting verb ও তার subject এবং object উল্লেক না থাকলে The speaker said to the person spoken to লিখে Indirect Speech-এ রূপান্তর করতে হয়।

Direct: “I shall meet you tomorrow”.

 

Indirect: The speaker said to the person spoken to that he would meet him the next day.

 

  

 

According to Sentence:  

 

  1. Assertive sentence:

 

 

Assertive sentence কে indirect speech-এ রুপান্তরের সময় Reporting verb say/said, or tell/told (object যদি থাকে) বসে । Inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে conjunction “that” বসে । Reported Speech এর subject + verb + Extension.

Direct: The teacher said to me, “You are wrong”.

Indirect: The teacher said to me that i was wrong.

Direct: Ruma said, “My father would go home tomorrow”.

Indirect: Ruma said that her father would go home tomorrow.

 

b) Interrogative Sentence:

 

  • Reporting verb টি ‘ask’ ‘enquire of’ ‘want to know’ ‘demand’ ‘wonder’ ইত্যাদিতে পরিবর্তিত হয়। Reported Speech যদি Auxiliary verb (do, does, did, shall, will, am, is, are, was, were, can, may ইত্যাদি) দ্বারা আরম্ভ হয় আর্থাৎ সংক্ষেপে “yes” বা “no” দ্বারা উত্তর দেওয়া যায় তবে  Reported speech এর পূর্বে that না বসিয়া  if/whether বসাতে হয়। Sentence টি Interrogative এর পরিবর্তে Assertive sentence -এ রুপান্তিত হয়।

 

 

Direct: He said to me, “Are you reading my book?”

Indirect: He asked me if i was reading his book.

 

  • Reported Speech যদি Interrogative pronoun (who, whom, whose, what, which ইত্যাদি) বা Interrogative adverb (why, where, how, when ইত্যাদি) দ্বারা আরম্ভ হয় তবে if/whether বসে না, ঐ শব্দটিই বসে। Sentence টি Interrogative এর পরিবর্তে Assertive sentence -এ রুপান্তিত হয়।

Direct: He said to his father, “What are you doing?”

 

Indirect: He asked his father what he was doing.

 

c) Imperative Sentence:

 

  • এক্ষেএে Reporting verb -টি অনুরোধ বুঝালে request, আদেশ বুঝালে order/command, উপদেশ বুঝালে advise অন্যথায় tell দ্বারা পরিবর্তিত হয় + Inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে to বসে + Reported speech-এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।

Direct: He said to me, “ Please give me a glass of water.”

 

Indirect: He requested me to give him a glass of water.

  • Imperative Sentence-টি যদি negative হয় তবে reporting verb এর পরে not বসে এবং তার পর to বসে।

Direct: He said to me, “ don't do this.”

 

Idirect: He told to me not to do that.

 

  • Imperative sentence-এ direct speech-এ কাউকে সম্বোধন করা হলে নিচের নিয়ম এর সাহায্যে indirect speech-এ রূপান্তর করতে হয়।

Structure: Addressing + Reporting verb-এর object(যদি থাকে) + as + যাকে/যাদেরকে সম্বোধন করা হইয়াছে সে শব্দটি + reporting verb-এর subject + reporting verb + to + reported speech এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত।

 

Direct: He said to them, “Friends help me.”

Indirect: Addressing them as friends, he requested them to help him.

  • Imperative sentence এর direct speech-এ Sir থাকলে indirect করার সময় Sir এর পরিবর্তে respectfully ব্যবহৃত হয়।

 

 

Direct: The boy said to the teacher, “ Sir, lend me your book please.”

Indirect: The boy requested the teacher respectfully to lend him(b) his(t) book.

 

  • Let এর পরে us থাকলে indirect করার সময় reporting verb-টি পরিবর্তে হয়ে propose/suggest হয় + inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে that বসে + they/we + should বসে + reported speech এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।

Note: Reporting verb এর Subject third person হলে that এর পর we বসে এবং reporting verb এর subject first person হলে that এর পরে they বসে।

 

Direct: We said to the chairman, “Let us drop the matter.”

Indirect: We proposed the chairman dropping the matter.

Direct: I said to him, “Let us play.”

Indirect: I suggest playing.

 

Exceptional: Let দ্বারা প্রস্তাব না বুঝালে reporting verb টি পরিবর্তন হয় না inverted comma উঠে that বসে+ reported verb এর subject পুনরায় বসে + might + reporting speech-এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।

 

Direct: Kamal said to me, “Let him say whatever he likes.”

Indirect: Kamal told me that he might say whatever he liked.

      

 

  

Optative Sentence:

 

 

Reporting verb-এর পরিবর্তে wish or pray বসে + Inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে that বসে + Reported speech -এর subject বসে + may/might + Reported speech -এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।

Direct: Father said to me, “May you pass the examination.”

Indirect: Father prayed that i might pass the examination.

Direct: The teacher said to the student, “May Allah blesses you.”

Indirect: The teacher wished that Allah might bless the student.

 

Exclamatory Sentence:

 

  • Direct Speech দ্বারা আনন্দ বুঝালে Reporting verb পরিবর্তিত হয়ে exlaim/exlaimed with joy আর দুঃখ বুঝালে exclaim/exclaimed with sorrow or grief ইত্যাদি হয় + Inverted comma উঠে that বসে + reported speech আর subject + reporting verb অনুযায়ী reported peech আর verb বসে + very/great + adjective বসে + বাকি অংশ।   

 

 

Direct: The man said, “Alas! I am undone.”

Indirect: The man exclaimed with sorrow that he was undone.

 

  • Reported Speech how বা what দ্বারা শুরু হলে অর্থাৎ Sentence এর শুরুতে আতিশয্য বুঝালে Indirect Narration করার সময় উক্ত How/What এর পরিবর্তে very, much, great ইত্যাদি ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

Direct: Silva said, “What a fine bird it is.”

 

Indirect: Silva exclaimed with joy that it was a very fine bird.